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According to the military re-organisation carried out during the reign of Abdulhamid II /1876-1909/ military ranks were as follows:
Mulazim-i sani (Second Lieutenant), Mulazim-i evvel (First Lieutenant), Yuzbasi (Captain), Kolagasi (Adjutant Major), Binbasi (Major), Kaymakam (Lieutenant-Colonel), Miralay (Colonel), Mirliva (Brigadier-General), Ferik (Divisional-General) and Musir (Marshal). In the cavalry regiments there were also Yuzbasi vekili (Lieutenant Captain) and in the artillery the rank of Mulazim-i sani (Third Lieutenant) /походу ошибка и был не "сани", а какой-то другой "мюлязим"/
Officers of the rank of Mulazim-i Sani to Binbasi were known as zabitan (officers), and those from Kaymakan to Miralay as Buyuk zabitan (senior officers), while pashas were known as Erkani Askeriye. Officers of the rank of Mulazim-i sani to Binbasi were addressed as “Efendi”, while those from Kaymakam to Miralay were addressed as “Bey”. Officers who had risen from the ranks and were unable to read and write were addressed as “Agha” while those who had passed their literary examination were addressed as “Efendi”.
The officers in the Ottoman army were divided into two categories, the Mektepli, graduates of the military schools, and the Alayli, officers who had risen from the ranks. Infantry and cavalry officers were trained in the Harb Okulu (Military school), while artillery and engineer officers trained in the Kara Muhendishanesi (Land Engineering School), graduating from these schools with the rank of lieutenant. The most successful were sent to the erkan-i harbiye and mumtaz (general staff and select) divisions for a further three years study, then eight months at the sinif-i selase-i askeriye as captains or officers attached as captains to the general staff, after which they were appointed as kolagasi to the Erkan-i Harbiye Umumiye Dairesi or the Ordu Erkan-i Harbiye.
Idare zabitani (Administrative officers); Alay eminleri (regimental adjutants and paymasters) engaged in clerical and administrative duties, alay and tabur katipleri (regimental and battalion clerks) were counted as idare subayi (administrative officers), an alay emini or alay katibi being equivalent to a kolagasi, and the tabur katibi to a yuzbasi. The tabur katibi muavini (assistant battalion clerks) were a degree lover than a lieutenant.
Sihhiye zabitani (health officers) were doctors and pharmacists who graduated with the rank of captain from the Mekteb-i Tibbiy-e Sahane (Imperial Medical School), while veterinary surgeons graduated with the same rank from the Mekteb-i Harbiye-i Sahane (Imperial Military Academy). The doctors served for two years in the Gulhane hospital, after which they were appointed to a regiment or to another hospital.
Every infantry and artillery regiment had a battalion imam to assist the soldiers in the performance of their religious duties. These were also regarded as officers. Battalion imams held a rank above yuzbasi but below kolagasi, while regimental muftis held the rank above kolagasi but below that of alay eminleri (regimental quartermasters). Regimental imams were below the regimental muftis but above the battalion imams.
Kucuk zabitani (junior officers) in the infantry held the ranks of sergeant (cavus) and sergeant major (bascavus), while in the cavalry there were lance sergeants (cavus vekili), sergeants and sergeant majors. In the artillery sergeants, major sergeants and armoury sergeants (cephane cavusu) were present. Although corporals (onbasi) and lance-corporals (onbasi vekili) held ranks in the army, they were not recognised as being in this category.